Faculty of Education, Social Sciences and Law

School of Law

Professor Michael Cardwell

Professor of Agricultural Law

Having studied Classics at Oxford, I entered practice with Burges Salmon, Solicitors, Bristol. Post-qualification, my area of specialisation was agricultural law. 

In 1990, I joined the School of Law at the University of Leeds and am currently Professor of Agricultural Law.

Research Interests

My interests are in agricultural law, with particular reference to ...

  • the Common Agricultural Policy
  • agricultural holdings
  • agriculture in world trade
  • agriculture and the environment, including the regulation of genetically modified organisms and nitrate pollution
  • agriculture and climate change
  • food security.


I teach modules in the following area ...

  • Equity and Trusts

PhD Supervision

I  welcome PhD applications in all areas of agricultural law, including European Union and world trade aspects.

Key Publications


  • Research Handbook on EU Agriculture Law, ed. by McMahon JA and Cardwell MN (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2015)

  • Williams PR, Cardwell MN, Williams V, Scammell, Densham and Williams' Law of Agricultural Holdings, 10th (London: Butterworths LexisNexis, 2015)

  • Bodiguel L, Cardwell MN, The Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms: Comparative Approaches (Oxford University Press, 2010)

  • Cardwell MN, The European Model of Agriculture (Oxford University Press, 2004), liv,447p

  • Cardwell MN, Grossman MR, Rodgers CP, Agriculture and International Trade: Law, Policy and the WTO (CAB International, Wallingford, 2003), 352

Journal articles

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Farmers, Milk Prices and Rural Indignation’, Onati Socio-legal Series, 5.1 (2015), 51-72

  • Cardwell MN, Smith F, ‘Renegotiation of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture: Accommodating the New Big Issues’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 62.4 (2013), 865-898
    DOI: 10.1017/S0020589313000341

  • Bodiguel L, Cardwell MN, ‘Les Jurisdictions Pénales Britanniques et Françaises Face aux Anti-OGM: au-delà des Différences, un Communauté d’Esprit’, Revue Juridique de l’Environnement 2011, 267-279

  • Cardwell MN, ‘European Union Agricultural Policy and Practice: The New Challenge of Climate Change’, Environmental Law Review, 13.4 (2011), 271-295

  • Cardwell MN, Rodgers CP, ‘Reforming the WTO Legal Order for Agricultural Trade: Issues for European Rural Policy in the Doha Round’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 55.4 (2006), 805-838
    DOI: 10.1093/iclq/lei131

  • Cardwell MN, ‘The Polluter Pays Principle in European Community Law and Its Impact on United Kingdom Farmers’, Oklahoma Law Review, 59 (2006), 89-113


  • Cardwell MN, ‘The Direct Payments Regime: Delivering ‘a Fair Standard of Living for the Agricultural Community’?’, in Research Handbook on EU Agriculture Law, ed. by McMahon JA and Cardwell MN (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2015), 41-61

  • Cardwell MN, Smith F, ‘Contemporary Problems of Climate Change and the TBT Agreement: Moving Beyond Eco-labelling’, in Research Handbook on the WTO and Technical Barriers to Trade, ed. by Epps T and Trebilcock MJ (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2013), 391-423

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Stretching the Boundaries of Multifunctionality? An Evolving Common Agricultural Policy Within the World Trade Legal Order’, in Research Handbook on the WTO Agriculture Agreement: New and Emerging Issues in International Agricultural Trade Law, ed. by McMahon JA and Desta MG (Edward Elgar, 2012), 272-299

  • Bodiguel L, Cardwell MN, ‘Genetically Modified Organisms and the Public: Participation, Preferences, and Protest’, in The Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms: Comparative Approaches, ed. by Bodiguel L and Cardwell MN (Oxford University Press, 2010), 11-36

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Agricultural Tenancies: Future Directions’, in Landlord and Tenant Law: Past, Present and Future, ed. by Bright S (Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2006), 129-145

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