School of Law

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Professor Michael Cardwell's Publications


  • Research Handbook on EU Agriculture Law, ed. by McMahon JA and Cardwell MN (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2015)

  • Williams PR, Cardwell MN, Williams V, Scammell, Densham and Williams' Law of Agricultural Holdings, 10th (London: Butterworths LexisNexis, 2015)

  • Williams PR, Cardwell MN, Scammell and Densham's Law of Agricultural Holdings: Ninth Edition - Supplement (LexisNexis, 2011)

  • Bodiguel L, Cardwell MN, The Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms: Comparative Approaches (Oxford University Press, 2010)

  • Williams PR, Cardwell MN, Williams V, Scammell and Densham's Law of Agricultural Holdings (Butterworths LexisNexis, 2007), 9

  • Cardwell MN, The European Model of Agriculture (Oxford University Press, 2004), liv,447p

  • Cardwell MN, Grossman MR, Rodgers CP, Agriculture and International Trade: Law, Policy and the WTO (CAB International, Wallingford, 2003), 352

  • Cardwell MN, Milk Quotas: European Community and United Kingdom Law (Oxford University Press, 1996), 1, 220p

Journal articles

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Brexit and agriculture: implementing a new legal framework for agricultural support’, The Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies, 19 (2017), 311-335
    DOI: 10.1017/cel.2017.10, Repository URL:

    Brexit has the capacity to impact heavily on the agricultural sector across the United Kingdom in that it is a sector which has been both in receipt of substantial expenditure under the Common Agricultural Policy and subject to a pattern of close regulation at European Union level. This article will explore the legal implications for post-Brexit agricultural support, proceeding in three stages. First, there will be an outline of the current structure of the industry, with particular reference to its diversity in terms of physical landscape, operational scale and legal foundations. Secondly, there will be discussion of emerging policy within both central UK government and the devolved administrations. In this context, specific attention will be directed to the likely extent of funding and the proposed drive towards higher standards in environmental protection and animal welfare. And, in each case, account will also be taken of specific implications which flow from overarching World Trade Organization rules. Thirdly, there will be consideration of the potentially difficult issues which arise as a result of agriculture being a devolved matter, different policy imperatives already becoming evident across the constituent parts of the UK. For the present, the prospect is that a bespoke support regime will survive Brexit and, in this sense, agricultural ‘exceptionalism’ will continue. However, the more precise form of such a regime remains as yet work-in-progress and its realisation will present considerable challenges not only in political terms, but also by reason of the complex legal geometry in which World Trade Organization rules and the constitutional rights of the devolved administrations are weighty factors.

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Brexit: a new direction for United Kingdom agriculture?’, Tijdschrift voor Agrarisch Recht, 11 (2017), 552-558
    Repository URL:

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Farmers, Milk Prices and Rural Indignation’, Onati Socio-legal Series, 5.1 (2015), 51-72

  • Cardwell MN, Smith F, ‘Renegotiation of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture: Accommodating the New Big Issues’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 62.4 (2013), 865-898
    DOI: 10.1017/S0020589313000341

  • Cardwell MN, ‘European Union Agricultural Policy and Practice: The New Challenge of Climate Change’, Environmental Law Review, 13.4 (2011), 271-295

  • Bodiguel L, Cardwell MN, ‘Les Jurisdictions Pénales Britanniques et Françaises Face aux Anti-OGM: au-delà des Différences, un Communauté d’Esprit’, Revue Juridique de l’Environnement 2011, 267-279

  • Cardwell MN, Hunt J, ‘Public Rights of Way and Level Playing Fields’, Environmental Law Review, 12 (2010), 291-300

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Public Participation in the Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms: a Matter of Substance or Form?’, Environmental Law Review, 12 (2010), 12-25

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Current Developments: Agriculture’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 58.4 (2009), 993-1002

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Regulation of the Common Agricultural Policy in the United Kingdom: Simplicity or Complexity?’, Rivista di Diritto Agrario, 87 (2008), 163-183

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Rural Development in the European Community: Charting a New Course?’, Drake Journal of Agricultural Law, 13 (2008), 21-61

  • Cardwell MN, Rodgers CP, ‘Reforming the WTO Legal Order for Agricultural Trade: Issues for European Rural Policy in the Doha Round’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 55.4 (2006), 805-838
    DOI: 10.1093/iclq/lei131

  • Cardwell MN, ‘The Polluter Pays Principle in European Community Law and Its Impact on United Kingdom Farmers’, Oklahoma Law Review, 59 (2006), 89-113

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Genetically Modified Crops: Co-existence and Liability in the United Kingdom’, Agricoltura Istituzioni Mercati: Rivista di diritto agroalimentare e dell’ambiente 2006, 461-474

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Current Developments European Law: Agriculture’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 55 (2006), 467-475

  • Bodiguel L, Cardwell MN, ‘Evolving definitions of "agriculture" for an evolving agriculture?’, Conveyancer and Property Lawyer, Sept/Oct (2005), 419-446

  • Cardwell MN, Bodiguel L, ‘Évolution de la Définition de l'Agriculture pour une Agriculture Évoluée; Approche Comparative Européenne/Grande Bretagne/France’, Revue du Marché Commun et de l'Union Européenne 2005, 456-466

  • Cardwell MN, ‘The Release of Genetically Modified Organisms into the Environment: Public Concerns and Regulatory Responses - a United Kingdom Perspective’, Quaderni di Diretto Privato Europeo, 5 (2004), 131-154

  • Cardwell MN, ‘European Union Law: Agriculture’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 52 (2003), 1030-1038
    DOI: 10.1093/iclq/52.4.1030

  • Cardwell MN, ‘The Deliberate Release of Genetically Modified Organisms into the Environment: Public Concerns and Regulatory Responses’, Environmental Law Review, 4.3 (2002), 156-170

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Milk and Livestock Quotas as Property’, Edinburgh Law Review 2000, 168-190

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Farm Business Tenancies: the American Way’, Conveyancer and Property Lawyer 2000, 229-244


  • Cardwell MN, ‘The direct payments regime: Delivering 'a fair standard of living for the agricultural community'?’ ([], 2015), 41-61

    Author URL []

  • Cardwell MN, McMahon JA, ‘Looking back to look forward’, in Research Handbook on EU Agriculture Law ([], 2015), 531-540
    DOI: 10.4337/9781781954621

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Common Agricultural Policy Reform and the Objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy’, in Studi in Honore di Luigi Costato, ed. by Nappi P and others (Naples: Jovene, 2014), 1, 211-225

  • Cardwell MN, Smith F, ‘Contemporary Problems of Climate Change and the TBT Agreement: Moving Beyond Eco-labelling’, in Research Handbook on the WTO and Technical Barriers to Trade, ed. by Epps T and Trebilcock MJ (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2013), 391-423

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Stretching the Boundaries of Multifunctionality? An Evolving Common Agricultural Policy Within the World Trade Legal Order’, in Research Handbook on the WTO Agriculture Agreement: New and Emerging Issues in International Agricultural Trade Law, ed. by McMahon JA and Desta MG (Edward Elgar, 2012), 272-299

  • Bodiguel L, Cardwell MN, Carretero Garcia A, Viti D, ‘Coexistence of Genetically Modified, Conventional, and Organic Crops in the European Union: National Implementation’, in The Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms: Comparative Approaches, ed. by Bodiguel L and Cardwell MN (Oxford University Press, 2010), 163-197

  • Bodiguel L, Cardwell MN, ‘Genetically Modified Organisms and the Public: Participation, Preferences, and Protest’, in The Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms: Comparative Approaches, ed. by Bodiguel L and Cardwell MN (Oxford University Press, 2010), 11-36

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Agriculture and Fisheries’, in European Community Law of State Aid, ed. by Bacon K (Oxford University Press, 2009), 281-315

  • Cardwell MN, ‘The Polluter Pays Principle, European Community Law and United Kingdom Farmers: the Reduction of Nitrate Pollution and the Promotion of Cross Compliance’, in Agriculture and the Polluter Pays Principle, ed. by Grossman MR (British Institute of International and Comparative Law, 2009), 261-286

  • Bodiguel L, Cardwell MN, ‘La Coexistence des Cultures GM et Non GM: Approche Comparative Entre l'Union Européenne, le Royaume-Uni et la France’, in Production et Consommation Durables: de la Gouvernance au Consommateur Citoyen, ed. by Parent G (Québec Canada: Éditions Yvon Blais, 2008), 325-366

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Agricultural Tenancies: Future Directions’, in Landlord and Tenant Law: Past, Present and Future, ed. by Bright S (Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2006), 129-145

  • Cardwell MN, ‘The Place of Multifunctional Agriculture in World Trade’, in Agriculture in WTO law, ed. by O'Connor B (Cameron May, 2005), 379-400

  • Cardwell MN, ‘The European Model of Agriculture and World Trade: Reconfiguring Domestic Support’, in Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies: Volume 5 2002-2003, ed. by Bell J and others (Hart Publishing, 2004), 77-103

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Blurred Legal Characteristics Work in Favour of a Competitive Dairy Industry in the UK’, in Production Rights in European Agriculture, ed. by Barthelemy B and David J (INRA/Elsevier, 2001), 127-135

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Land and Agricultural Production’, in Land Law: Themes and Perspectives, ed. by Bright S and Dewar J (Oxford University Press, 1998), 406-427

  • Cardwell MN, ‘Livestock Subsidy Schemes’, in Agricultural Law, Tax and Finance, ed. by Lennon A and Mackay R (Sweet and Maxwell, 1997), 61-140

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