Faculty of Education, Social Sciences and Law

School of Law

Contact Details

Professor Adam Crawford's Publications

Books

  • Crawford A, Newburn T, Youth offending and restorative justice: Implementing reform in youth justice ([n.pub.], 2013), 1-264
    DOI: 10.4324/9781843924975

    © the authors 2003. All rights reserved.This book provides an empirically grounded, theoretically informed account of recent changes to the youth justice system in England and Wales, focusing on the introduction of elements of restorative justice into the heart of the criminal justice system, and the implementation of referral orders and youth offender panels. Taken together, this amounts to the most radical overhaul of the youth justice system in the last half century, fundamentally changing the underlying values of the system away from an 'exclusionary punitive justice' and towards an 'inclusionary restorative justice'. The book explores the implications of these changes by using the lens of a detailed study of the implementation of referral orders and youth offender panels to explore wider issues about youth justice policy and the integration of restorative justice principles. it draws upon the findings of an in-depth study of the pilots established prior to the national rollout of referral orders in April 2002. The book will be essential reading not only for those involved in the task of implementing the new youth justice, but others with an interest in the criminal justice system and in restorative justice who need to know about the far reaching reforms to the youth justice system and their impact.

  • Crawford TAM, Hucklesby A, Legitimacy and Compliance in Criminal Justice, ed. by Crawford A and Hucklesby A (Abingdon: Routledge, 2013)

  • Crawford A, International and Comparative Criminal Justice and Urban Governance (Cambridge Univ Pr, 2011)

  • Crawford A, International and comparative criminal justice and urban governance: Convergence and divergence in global, national and local settings ([n.pub.], 2011), 1-618
    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511974953

    © Cambridge University Press 2011.Criminal justice has traditionally been associated with the nation state, its legitimacy and its authority. The growing internationalisation of crime control raises crucial and complex questions about the future shape of justice and urban governance as these are experienced at local, national and international realms. The emergence of new international justice institutions such as the International Criminal Court, the greater movement of people and goods across national borders and the transfer of criminal justice policies between different jurisdictions all present novel challenges to criminal justice systems as well as our understandings of criminal justice. This volume of essays explores the implications and impact of criminal justice developments in an increasingly globalised world. It offers cutting-edge conceptual contributions from leading international commentators organised around the themes of international criminal justice institutions and practices; comparative penal policies; and international and comparative urban governance and crime control.

  • Meško G, Cockcroft T, Crawford A, Lemaitre A, Crime, media and fear of crime ([n.pub.], 2009)

  • Crawford A, Crime Prevention Policies in Comparative Perspective (Cullompton: Willan Publishing, 2009), 1-266

  • Crawford A, Lister SC, The Use and Impact of Dispersal Orders: Sticking Plasters and Wake-Up Calls (Policy Press, 2007), 77 + xiip

    Author URL [http]

  • Crawford A, Burden T, Integrating Victims in Restorative Youth Justice (Policy Press, 2005), 102 + xvp

  • Crawford A, Lister SC, Blackburn SJ, Burnett J, Plural Policing: The Mixed Economy of Visible Patrols in England and Wales, Researching Criminal Justice (The Policy Press, 2005)

  • Crawford A, Blackburn SJ, Lister SC, Shepherd P, Patrolling with a Purpose: An Evaluation of Police Community Support Officers in Leeds and Bradford City Centres (CCJS Press, 2004), 89 + xip

  • Crawford A, Lister SC, The Extended Policing Family: Visible Patrols in Residential Areas (York Publishing Services/Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2004), 64p

    Author URL [www.jrf.org.uk]

  • Crawford A, Lister SC, Wall DS, Great Expectations: Contracted Community Policing in New Earswick (York Publishing Services/Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2003), 50 + xp

  • Crawford A, Newburn T, Youth Offending and Restorative Justice: Implementing Reform in Youth Justice (Willan Publishing, 2003), xiv,264p

  • Crawford A, Crime and Insecurity: The Governance of Safety in Europe (Willan Publishing, 2002), 324 + xi

  • Crawford A, Goodey JS, Integrating a Victim Perspective within Criminal Justice (Ashgate: Aldershot, 2000), 318 + xiiip

  • Crawford A, The Local Governance of Crime: Appeals to Community and Partnerships (Oxford University Press, 1999), Paperback, 368 + xiip

  • Crawford A, Crime Prevention and Community Safety: Politics, Policies and Practices (Longman, 1998), 307 + xip

  • Crawford A, The Local Governance of Crime: Appeals to Community and Partnerships (Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1997), 368 + xiip

  • Wood J, Crawford A, The Right to Silence: The Case for Retention (The Civil Liberties Trust, 1989), 38p

  • Meško G, Cockcroft T, Crawford T, Lemaître A, Crime, Media and Fear of Crime (Ljubljana: Tipografija Publishing, [n.d.]), 1-198

Journal articles

  • Crawford TAM, Hutchinson S, ‘The Future(s) of Security Studies’, British Journal of Criminology, 56.6 (2016), 1049-1067
    DOI: 10.1093/bjc/azw070, Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/103973/

    This article provides an introduction to the Special Issue as a whole by situating the collection of essays in the wider context of advances and debates within security studies and allied security-related research. It draws particularly upon themes and trends within and between international relations and criminology and their convergence around the field of security studies. It goes on to consider possible lines of future development in security scholarship and concludes by elaborating upon some of the key thematic concerns that inform the subsequent articles.

  • Crawford A, ‘Temporality in restorative justice: On time, timing and time-consciousness’, Theoretical Criminology, 19.4 (2015), 470-490
    DOI: 10.1177/1362480615575804, Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/83483/

    © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015.Restorative justice has been the subject of much theoretical criminological debate and policy innovation. However, little consideration has been given explicitly to issues of temporality and the challenges they raise. Yet, at its heart, restorative justice provides a rearticulated understanding of the relationship between the past and future; one that seeks to marry otherwise tense and ambiguous dynamics of instrumental and moral reasoning, along with risk-based and punitive logics. This article explores a number of dimensions in which questions of time, timing and time-consciousness are implicated in conceptions and practices of restorative justice. It highlights the social, plural and contested nature of time and temporalizations with relevance to restorative justice. It points to new lines of enquiry and analysis with inferences for the implementation of restorative values and conceptions of justice. It concludes with reflections on the multiple temporalities inferred in shifts of scale in the application of restorative justice.

  • Crawford TAM, ‘L’hétérogénéité du concept de sécurité : ses implications sur les politiques publiques, la justice et la durabilité des pratiques’, Cahiers de la securite et de la justice, 27/28 (2014), 25-34
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/83672/

    In this paper, I want to explore and assess a number of interconnected trends and their implications for our understanding of security and justice in contemporary societies. In so doing, I will draw most evidently on developments in the UK but also delineate and evoke broader trans-European comparisons, where these seem appropriate. My argument will be structured around the elaboration and consideration of two inter-related contemporary trends which are evident across European societies, albeit sometimes expressed differently, reflecting divergent political and cultural contexts. The two trends are: first, the rise of ‘public safety’ as an holistic domain of policy, notably at the level of the city/region; and, second, the evolving conceptualisation of ‘security’ as promiscuous. Particular attention is given to security’s evolving quality and social character as well as to its temporal and distributive dimensions. The purpose is to highlight the aggrandising and future oriented ramifications of securitising practices. In the concluding section, I turn briefly to consider the implications of these dynamics for our understanding of the tense relation between security, liberty and justice. I explore the implications of the preceding discussions for how we might conceive of a conception of ‘sustainable security’. In so doing, I elaborate a conceptualisation of security which is normatively rooted in notions of social justice without being capacious or pervasive. One that attends to the short-term security needs of living with risk and threat without prompting social injustices and inequalities or compromising future security by generating new sources of insecurities.

  • Barker A, Crawford TAM, ‘Peur Du Crime et Insécurité: Quelques réflexions sur les tendances de la recherche anglo-américaine’, Déviance et Société, 35.1 (2011), 59-91
    DOI: 10.3917/ds.351.0059

    Against a background of increased public debate about insecurity and research interest in fear of crime, this article explores and reflects upon recent developments within Anglo-American literature and research. It explores what public perceptions of insecurity and fear of crime are taken to mean, how we measure insecurity and interpret research findings, and considers the value of such measurements. It assesses the limitations of traditional ways of conceptualising and measuring fear of crime and highlights the complexities associated with interpreting public perceptions of contemporary insecurities. In doing so, it reflects upon recent advances in understanding the experience and expression of fear of crime. It goes on to explore the consequences and implications of fear of crime and insecurity, its measurement and conceptualisation, for criminological policy debates in the UK and on the conceptual linkages in the nexus between disorder fear and crime. It concludes by raising a number of questions prompted by the research overview for comparative analysis.

  • Crawford A, ‘Herstelrecht en criminaliteitspreventie: van conceptueel kader naar praktische uitdaging’, Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, 2011.2 (2011), 10-22
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/76501/

    On the basis of current definitions and approaches of restorative justice and crime prevention, and making use of a two-dimensional typology of crime prevention, this article develops a conceptual framework and seeks to offer points of connections and departure at the theoretical level between restorative justice practices and different models of offender-oriented, victim-oriented and community-oriented prevention. In order to face some of the present limitations of restorative justice, in particular the missing link to causes of crime at the societal-structural level, the author widens the perspective of restorative justice to the broader notion of ‘community justice’. The challenge for restorative justice is, then, to integrate polycentric problem-solving approaches into its operational models.

  • Barker A, Crawford A, ‘Fear of crime and insecurity some reflections on developments within anglo-american research’, Deviance et Societe, 35.1 (2011), 59-91
    DOI: 10.3917/ds.351.0059

    Against a background of increased public debate about insecurity and research interest in fear of crime, this article explores and reflects upon recent developments within Anglo-American literature and research. It explores what public perceptions of insecurity and fear of crime are taken to mean, how we measure insecurity and interpret research findings, and considers the value of such measurements. It assesses the limitations of traditional ways of conceptualising and measuring fear of crime and highlights the complexities associated with interpreting public perceptions of contemporary insecurities. In doing so, it reflects upon recent advances in understanding the experience and expression of fear of crime. It goes on to explore the consequences and implications of fear of crime and insecurity, its measurement and conceptualisation, for criminological policy debates in the UK and on the conceptual linkages in the nexus between disorder fear and crime. It concludes by raising a number of questions prompted by the research overview for comparative analysis.

  • Crawford T, ‘Urban safety, anti-social behaviour and the night-time economy’, Criminology & Criminal Justice, 9.4 (2009), 403-413
    DOI: 10.1177/1748895809343390, Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/83482/

    The contemporary city is a contested space and its governance is the subject of complex global economic forces, local interests and political struggles as well as a response to the changing face of governing alliances in residential and commercial areas, forms of consumption, commercially-generated crime and disorder and cultural expressions of leisure. This article seeks to provide a thematic introduction to the manner in which the regulation of contemporary British cities has been influenced by concerns with tackling anti-social behaviour and promoting civility. It argues that in governing urban safety, the normative governmental agendas that seek to remoralize and cleanse city spaces and promote certain values of appropriate consumer-citizen, often clash with commercially-driven imperatives to (excessive) consumption and the allure of cities, for some, as places of difference that exhibit relaxed normative constraints; most notably in the night-time economy. It argues that the manner in which these forces are played out is conditioned by the interplay between different actors and organizations, as both regulators and regulated, some of whom have assumed new responsibilities in the governance of urban safety. The resultant pressures have produced mixed experiences of the city as a meeting place for loosely connected strangers, as a place of indulgence and as a place of cultural expression.

  • Crawford A, ‘Governing through Anti-Social Behaviour: Regulatory Challenges to Criminal Justice’, British Journal of Criminology, 49.6 (2009), 810-831
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/43001/

    The advent of the ‘anti-social behaviour’ agenda in Britain and the introduction of diverse new powers and regulatory tools, represent a major challenge to, and assault upon, traditional conceptions of criminal justice. This article argues that the language of regulation has been appropriated and deployed to cloak and legitimise ambitious (yet ambiguous) bouts of hyper-active state interventionism and social engineering that have more to do with quests to demonstrate government’s capacity to deliver visible public sector reform and to be seen to be doing something tangible about amorphous public anxieties than with meaningful behavioural change. Rather, regulatory ideas are being used to circumvent and undermine established criminal justice principles, notably those of due process, proportionality and special protections traditionally afforded to young people. Consequently, novel forms of state-sponsored control have resulted in more extensive, more intensive and earlier interventions, most especially into the lives of young people.

  • Crawford A, ‘Criminalising Sociability through Anti-Social Behaviour Legislation: Dispersal powers, young people and the police’, Youth Justice, 9.1 (2009), 5-26
    DOI: 10.1177/1473225408101429, Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/43003/

    This article explores the impact of dispersal powers introduced as part of the British government’s drive to tackle anti-social behaviour. It focuses especially on the experiences and views of young people affected by dispersal orders. It highlights the importance of experiences of respect and procedural justice for the manner in which they respond to directions to disperse. It considers the ways in which dispersal powers can increase police-youth antagonism; bring young people to police attention on the basis of the company they keep; render young people more vulnerable; and reinforce a perception of young people as a risk to others rather than as at risk themselves. It reflects on broader conceptions of youth and public space apparent within the anti-social behaviour agenda.

  • Crawford A, ‘Dispersal Powers and the Symbolic Role of Anti-Social Behaviour Legislation’, MOD LAW REV, 71.5 (2008), 753-784
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2230.2008.00714.x, Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/76517/

  • Crawford A, ‘Modèles comparé de prévention de la criminalité et de sa mise en oeuvre : leur genèse, leur influence et leur développement’, Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie, 88 (2008), 1047-1062

  • Crawford A, ‘Situating Restorative Youth Justice in Crime Control and Prevention’, Acta Juridica, 2007 (2007), 1-21

  • Crawford A, ‘Evaluating the Impact of Dispersal Orders’, Police Review, 88 (2007), 15-17

  • Crawford A, ‘Missed Opportunities for Preventing Crime’, Criminal Justice Matters, 69 (2007), 16-17

  • Crawford A, ‘Review of Burney, E. “Making People Behave: Anti-Social Behaviour, Politics and Policy’, Journal of Social Policy, 36.2 (2007), 354-356

  • Crawford A, ‘Making people behave: Anti-social behaviour, politics and policy’, J SOC POLICY, 36 (2007), 354-356
    DOI: 10.1017/S0047279407290841

  • Crawford A, ‘Networked governance and the post-regulatory state? Steering, rowing and anchoring the provision of policing and security’, THEORETICAL CRIMINOLOGY, 10.4 (2006), 449-479
    DOI: 10.1177/1362480606068874

  • Crawford A, Lister SC, ‘Additional Security Patrols in Residential Areas: Notes from the Marketplace’, Policing and Society, 16.2 (2006), 164-188
    DOI: 10.1080/10439460600662189

    This paper presents an overview of an emerging market in residential security patrols in England and Wales. Drawing on recent empirical research, it outlines the fragmented and uneven nature of current developments and highlights coordination deficits and the absence of regulatory oversight. The research illustrates how the growth in competitive relations between different providers of patrol can stymie the development of effective networked security alliances. It demonstrates the capacity of additional policing schemes to fuel unrealistic expectations among local publics and raise security thresholds. Furthermore, it highlights how policing as commodity through residential patrols can foster exclusionary tendencies by serving parochial rather than public interests. This raises important challenges that demand robust forms of governance and accountability to guarantee an equitable and fair distribution of policing and security.

  • Crawford A, ‘Fixing broken promises?': Neighbourhood wardens and social capital’, URBAN STUD, 43.5-6 (2006), 957-976
    DOI: 10.1080/00420980600676451

  • Crawford A, ‘Involving Lay People in Criminal Justice’, Criminology & Public Policy, 3.4 (2004), 693-702
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-9133.2004.tb00073.x

    Reaction essay on Youth Offender Panels, lay panel members, and restorative justice

  • Crawford A, Lister S, ‘The patchwork shape of reassurance policing in England and Wales - Integrated local security quilts or frayed, fragmented and fragile tangled webs?’, POLICING-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF POLICE STRATEGIES & MANAGEMENT, 27.3 (2004), 413-430
    DOI: 10.1108/13639510410553149

  • Crawford A, ‘Contractual Governance' of Deviant Behaviour’, Journal of Law and Society, 30.4 (2003), 479-505
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6478.2003.00267.x

    This paper seeks to analyse and make sense of the growing role and implications of forms of ‘contractual governance’ that are emerging in diverse fields of social life and public policy in England and Wales, both within and beyond criminal justice. Collectively, these modes of control mimic and deploy ‘contracts’ and ‘agreement’ in the regulation of deviant conduct and disorderly behaviour. The rise of contractual governance is explored against the background of a crisis in penal modernism and the challenge of crime prevention. Contractual governance in a number of fields is outlined and discussed including home-school agreements in education; acceptable behaviour contracts and introductory tenancies in social housing; restrictive covenants in private residential neighbourhoods; domestic security and private residential patrols and youth offender contracts. It will be argued that, in these contexts, contracts seek to induce conformity and order through modes of governing the future that depart significantly from traditional modes of policing and that recast social obligations in forms of parochial control.

  • Earle R, Newburn T, Crawford A, ‘Referral Orders: Some Reflections on Policy Transfer and 'What Works’, Youth Justice, 2.3 (2003), 141-150

  • Crawford A, ‘Las politicas de seguridad local y de prevencion de la delincuencia en Inglaterra y en el Pais de Gales: Nuevas estrategias y nuevose proyectos’, Revista Catalana de Seguretat Publica, 11 (2002), 83-124

    Crime prevention in the 1990s

  • Crawford A, ‘La Réforme de la Justice des Mineurs en Angleterre et au Pays de Galles’, Deviance et Societe, 26.4 (2002), 387-402

    This article considers the origins and development of New Labour’s policies against the background of youth justice in England and Wales. It outlines the central elements of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 and the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999. Together, the reforms constitute a major reworking of youth justice. Yet, they also embody a number of dynamics with divergent penological aims and competing logics. These are explored and assessed. The manner in which notions of restorative justice inform the reforms is considered as are the punitive nature of some of the changes and their implications for a mangerialist agenda within youth justice.

  • Crawford A, Newburn T, ‘Recent Developments in Restorative Justice for Young People in England and Wales: Community Participation and Representation’, The British Journal of Criminology, 42.3 (2002), 476-495

    This article examines some recent attempts to introduce elements of restorative justice into the youth justice system. We focus on the introduction of referral orders and youth offender panels and, in particular, consider the issues of community participation and representation. In examining the early experiences of these new ways of working we highlight a series of questions that arise out of the tension between the participatory character of restorative justice and the managerialist nature of much contemporary youth justice in England and Wales.

  • Crawford A, ‘Nuovi attori nel governo della sicurezza urbana e nelle politiche sull'insicurezza’, Dei Delitti e Delle Pene 2002, 253-275

  • Crawford A, Enterkin J, ‘Victim contact work in the probation service. Paradigm shift or Pandora's box?’, BRITISH JOURNAL OF CRIMINOLOGY, 41.4 (2001), 707-725

  • Crawford A, ‘Vers une Reconfiguration des Pouvoirs? Le Niveau Local et les Perspectives de la Gouvernance’, Deviance et Societe, 25.1 (2001), 3-32

    In the context of globalising and localising tendencies of the late modern era, we are witnessing a reconfiguration of powers between the state, civil society and market with implications for crime and its control. The influence of three key ‘political rationalities’ - namely welfarism, neo-liberalism and communitarianism - which inform current developments and debates, are considered. Feelings of insecurity and social control at the local level are becoming a more important aspect of public policy. As the state redefines its role, the rise of community safety constitutes a realm of governance, which connects with people’s everyday experiences and over which ‘something can be done’. It is also a focus around which new forms of governance through partnerships appear to be emerging.

  • Crawford A, ‘Les politiques locales de prévention de la délinquance en Angleterre et au Pays de Galles: Nouvelles stratégies et nouveaux développements’, Deviance et Societe, 25.4 (2001), 427-458

  • Crawford A, ‘Justice de Proximite - The Growth of Houses of Justice and Victim/Offender Mediation in France: A Very UnFrench Legal Response?’, Social & Legal Studies, 9.1 (2000), 29-53

    Initiatives in mediation and reparation have developed significantly across diverse European countries, none more so than in France over the last decade. This article seeks to situate and explain the recent growth in France of the ‘Maisons de Justice’ (Houses of Justice) and victim/offender mediation they offer. This explanation is connected to an understanding of the increasingly dominant discourse of ‘justice de proximité’, its dynamics and its place within French juridical politics. The article draws upon ESRC funded empirical – observational and interview-based – research conducted in the Lyon and Paris areas during 1997. The article goes on to interrogate the implications of these institutions and practices for the present state of French criminal justice. It is argued that through the analysis of these ‘very unFrench’ legal responses we can prise open fundamental ambiguities and debates at the heart of French legal and cultural life in a period of momentous socio-legal challenge and flux. It is suggested that these institutions and practices embody, at the same time as trying to resolve, significant contradictions within French legal culture.

  • Crawford A, ‘Why British Criminologists Lose Their Critical Faculties upon Crossing the Channel: Some Thoughts on Comparative Criminology from an Empirical Investigation in France and England’, Social Work in Europe, 7.1 (2000), 22-30

  • Crawford A, Enterkin J, ‘The Probation Service, Victims of Crime and the Release of Prisoners’, Criminal Justice Matters, 39 (2000), 30-31

  • Enterkin J, Crawford A, ‘The Probation Service's Work with Victims of Crime’, Probation Journal, 47.2 (2000), 101-107

  • Crawford A, Walker C, ‘Centre for Criminal Justice Studies, University of Leeds’, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 7.1 (1999), 121-129

  • Crawford A, ‘Questioning Appeals to Community in Crime Prevention and Control’, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 7.4 (1999), 509-530

    This article casts a critical eye over some of the (often ignored) assumptions which underlie recent appeals to community in crime prevention and control. The article considers the philosophical origins, ambiguities and tensions within such appeals. In so doing, it draws explicitly upon the growth of ‘community safety’ and to a lesser extent ‘restorative justice’ in Britain and considers some of the implications to which this shift may give rise. In particular, it focuses upon the manner in which appeals to community converge and collide with changing social relations which may undermine their progressive potential. Specific attention is given to the implications of: increasing social and spatial dislocation; the commodification of security; and policy debates about a growing ‘underclass’. It is argued that there is much confusion as to how, and to what extent, communities can contribute to the construction of social order. Within the dynamics of community safety and crime control practices there are dangers that ‘security differentials’ may become increasingly significant characteristics of wealth and status with implications for social exclusion. This questions the extent to which crime is an appropriate vehicle around which to (re)construct open and tolerant communities.

  • Crawford A, ‘Partenariat et Responsabilité à l'Ère Manageriale: Retour sur l'Expérience Britannique’, Les Cahiers de la Sécurité Intérieure, 33 (1998), 51-87

  • Crawford A, ‘Community Safety Partnerships’, Criminal Justice Matters, 33 (1998), 4-5

  • Crawford A, ‘Community Safety and the Quest for Security: Holding Back the Dynamics of Social Exclusion’, Policy Studies, 19.3/4 (1998), 237-253

    This paper casts a deliberately critical eye over the government’s ‘community safety’ proposals as outlined in the Crime and Disorder Act 1998, their philosophical origins, their ambiguities and their potential for social exclusion. After an evaluation of some specific proposals in the Act, the paper goes on to suggest that community safety elements within the Act and associated policy initiatives embody three principal dynamics, namely appeals to community, managerialism and inter-organisational partnerships. Within and between these dynamics lie deep ambiguities and conflicts which may encourage, rather than hold back, the dynamics of social exclusion. It is argued that the government’s proposals - under the influence of a certain brand of communitarian thought - display much confusion as to how ‘communities’ can contribute to the construction of social order. Moreover, the notion of community collides with existing social fragmentation and the commodification of security, which may fuel exclusionary elements of community safety practice. The paper goes on to consider the existence of important tensions between the managerialist preoccupations of policy and the rhetoric of ‘partnerships’ which pervade community safety. These can serve to undermine the intentions of legislators. Within the dynamics of crime prevention practice and appeals to ‘community’ there are dangers that ‘security differentials’ become increasingly significant characteristics of wealth and status. For community safety to hold back the dynamics of social exclusion, both government and local community safety practitioners will need to foster the conditions in which partnerships can flourish and to nurture forms of co-operation, rooted in mutual acceptance of difference and inter-organisational trust.

  • Crawford A, Jones M, ‘Kirkholt Revisited: Some Reflections on the Transferability of Crime Prevention Initiatives’, The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 35.1 (1996), 21-39

  • Crawford A, ‘The Spirit of Community: Rights, Responsibilities and the Communitarian Agenda’, Journal of Law and Society, 23.2 (1996), 247-262

  • Crawford A, ‘Appeals to Community and Crime Prevention’, Crime, Law and Social Change: An International Journal 1995, vol 22 97-126

  • Crawford A, Jones M, ‘Inter-Agency Co-operation and Community-Based Crime Prevention’, The British Journal of Criminology, 35.1 (1995), 17-33

  • Crawford A, ‘Social values and managerial goals: Police and probation officers’ experiences and views of inter-agency co-operation’, Policing and Society, 4.4 (1994), 323-339
    DOI: 10.1080/10439463.1994.9964702

    Recently an ‘inter-agency’ approach has assumed the status of a panacea to the ills of contemporary criminal justice and crime prevention in Britain. This article reports on a survey of police and probation officers in one English county. The survey examines the views and experiences of rank-and-file officers to the enhanced role of inter-agency co-operation, in general, and in relation to community-based crime prevention, in particular. It considers the varying degrees of resistance to, and support for, inter-agency work both within and between police and probation organisations. The survey identifies a number of shared anxieties which transcend organisational boundaries and their implications for inter-agency work. It reveals a further ideological divide among both police and probation officers between those who reference their views on inter-agency co-operation in relation to the objectives of smooth management and those who see it as informing and/or facilitating a fundamental moral or social aspect of their work. Finally, the need for the clarification of organisational objectives and sites of conflict, in order to mitigate differentials in power relations between agencies, is considered. © 1994, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.

  • Crawford A, ‘Appeals to community and crime prevention’, Crime, Law and Social Change, 22.2 (1994), 97-126
    DOI: 10.1007/BF01308442

    This paper considers the growing appeals to the idea of "community" in criminal justice policy and the involvement of actual "communities" in criminal justice initiatives. It draws on a completed two year research study of a number of community-based crime prevention initiatives in the South East of England. The paper considers the nature of "community" to which appeals are made in criminal justice discourse and policies, the contribution of "community" to the practices of social order and the nature of "community representation" and participation in crime prevention initiatives. It is argued that appeals to "community" in crime prevention, and crime control more generally, embody shifts in what constitutes the legitimate responsibilities of individuals, collectivities and the state. This has a number of implications, the first of which is a redrawing of the cost of policing and security services. Additionally, there is an associated shift in blame for failure. Finally, actual "community" involvement in crime control gives rise to new structures and forms of local governance that evoke key questions about the regulation of social relations, the nature of conflict resolution, citizenship, democracy and social justice. © 1995 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  • Crawford A, ‘Social Values and Managerial Goals: Police and Probation Officers'' Experiences and Views of Inter-Agency Co-operation’, Policing and Society 1994, vol 4 323-39

  • Crawford A, ‘The Partnership Approach To Community Crime Prevention: Corporatism At the Local Level?’, Social & Legal Studies, 3.4 (1994), 497-519
    DOI: 10.1177/096466399400300403

  • Crawford A, ‘Police and Probation Attitudes’, Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 10.1 (1994), 58-68

  • Crawford A, ‘The Partnership Approach: Corporatism at the Local Level?’, Social and Legal Studies, Sage, London 1994, vol 3 497-519

Chapters

  • Crawford TAM, Cunningham M, ‘Working in Partnership: The challenges of working across organisational boundaries, cultures and practices’, in Police Leadership - Rising to the Top, ed. by Fleming J (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), 71-94

    This chapter sets out to identify and revisit some of the fundamental challenges associated with working in partnerships across organisational boundaries, cultures and established practices, and to consider some of the vexed issues that often stymie good intentions as well as their implications for police leadership. This critical starting point is deliberately chosen to prompt consideration of how best to manage inter-organisational relations. It also underscores the importance of strong leadership and strategic direction in providing organisational commitment and coordination of effort as well as facilitating engagement with and buy-in from multiple partners. The intention of this chapter is not to undermine the rationale for a partnership approach, but rather, to highlight often ignored problems and structural conflicts, so as to inform contemporary thinking and good practice and to help enlighten leadership strategies for negotiating these. For, it is only by recognising the barriers and the working assumptions that inform organisational hurdles that we can begin to surmount them. The implication is that successful inter-organisational partnerships don’t just happen; they need to be fashioned, crafted, nurtured and supported. They need both strategic leadership and the appropriately skilled people to deliver them on the ground.

  • Crawford TAM, ‘Thinking about sustainable security: metaphors, paradoxes and ironies’, in Positive criminology: reflections on care, belonging and security, ed. by Schuilenburg M, Van Steden R and Oude Breuil B (The Hague: Eleven International Publishing, 2014), 33-56
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/83484/

    In keeping with the theme of this book, the chapter will seek to contribute to a positive notion of security. It will do so by endeavouring to reclaim a reflexive conception of security from the growing and somewhat dystopian (and utopian) ‘anti-security’ critique (Neocleous and Rigakos, 2011), whilst acknowledging the dangers and malign societal impacts of which this body of literature sagely warns us. In its place, a conception of security as distinctly social, tied to notions of justice and legitimacy that is attentive to its temporal implications and distributive consequences will be advanced. It sets out from the premise that an underpinning of security is an essential prerequisite for a stable economy and vibrant communal life, as well as for inter-subjective well-being and human flourishing. This socially sustainable foundation necessitates that governments, businesses and societies can better predict, prevent and mitigate threats to security but also requires the capacity of societies, communities and individuals to adapt and live confidently with risk. The chapter seeks to bring a greater focus to the ethical dimensions of security (across time and space) and the societal consequences of security practices as a framework which can be used to enable and empower public policy and social interactions rather than simply hinder them. It underscores the importance of ethical and cultural considerations in understanding insecurities and public attitudes to security concerns. Hence, the chapter begins to sketch out the normative conditions under which security policies and practices might become socially sustainable, in that they are legitimate and just, in ways that avoid generating malign social consequences and the erosion of other societal values or ethical principles. The chapter is organised in two parts. The first outlines a number of metaphoric interpretations of security in contemporary discourse to highlight its ambivalent and ironic qualities. Particular attention is given to security’s evolving quality and social character as well as to its temporal and distributive dimensions. The purpose is to highlight the aggrandising and future oriented ramifications of securitising practices. The second section briefly explores the implications of the preceding discussions for how we might conceive of a conception of ‘sustainable security’ as a progressive notion.

  • Crawford A, ‘Public Safety and Private Security: Are They Reconcilable?’, in Costituzioni e sicurezza dello Stato, ed. by Torre A, Nuovi studi di diritto pubblico estero e comparato (Santacangelo di Romagna: Maggioli Editore, 2013), 507-528
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/94384/

  • Crawford TAM, ‘The Police, Policing and The Future of the 'Extended Policing Family’, in The Future of Policing, ed. by Brown J (Abingdon: Routledge, 2013), 173-190

  • Crawford TAM, Barker A, ‘Policing urban insecurities through visible patrols: Managing public expectations in times of fiscal restraint’, in Policing Cities: Urban Securitization and Regulation in a 21st Century World, ed. by Lipert R and Walby K, Frontiers of Criminal Justice (Abingdon: Routledge, 2013), 11-28
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/76500/

  • Crawford TAM, Hucklesby A, ‘Introduction: Compliance and Legitimacy in Criminal Justice’, in Legitimacy and Compliance in Criminal Justice, ed. by Crawford, TAM and Hucklesby, A (Abingdon: Routledge, 2013), 1-7

  • Crawford TAM, ‘Sticks and Carrots… and Sermons’: Some Thoughts on Compliance and Legitimacy in the Regulation of Youth Anti-Social Behaviour’, in Legitimacy and Compliance in Criminal Justice, ed. by Crawford A and Hucklesby A (Abingdon: Routledge, 2012), 181-213
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/76505/

    This chapter explores issues of legitimacy and compliance at the boundaries of criminal justice in the context of anti-social behaviour interventions with young people, where crime control interfaces with wider dynamics of public policy – including housing, education and welfare services – and interacts with civil legal interventions and multiple systems of behavioural regulation. He suggests that the novel technologies and tools of control spawned in the name of regulating anti-social behaviour present critical challenges for legitimacy and embody mixed assumptions about motivation and agency that inform possibilities of compliance. These assumptions he argues are particularly salient, yet often in reality decidedly confused, in relation to children and young people who are subject to diverse and inconsistent messages as to their competencies in their transition to adulthood. The chapter seeks to shed some light on the conceptual parameters and empirical issues that pertain to a more rigorous discussion and analysis of how we might understand and think about legitimacy and compliance in, and around, criminal justice.

  • Crawford A, Traynor P, ‘La Prévention de la Délinquance chez les Anglais: From community-based strategies to early interventions with young people’, in Social Crime Prevention in Late Modern Europe, ed. by Baillergeau E and Hebberecht P (Brussels: VUB Press, 2012), 63-101
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/76502/

  • Crawford A, Evans K, ‘Crime Prevention and Community Safety’, in Oxford Handbook of Criminology, ed. by Maguire M, Morgan R and Reiner R, fifth (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 769-805
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/76503/

  • Crawford A, ‘From the Shopping Mall to the Street Corner: Dynamics of Exclusion in the Governance of Public Space’, in International and Comparative Criminal Justice and Urban Governance, ed. by Crawford A (Cambridge University Press, 2011), 483-518
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/76504/

  • Crawford A, ‘Regulating civility, governing security and policing (dis)order under conditions of uncertainty’, in Governing Security Under the Rule of Law?, ed. by Blad J and others (The Hague: Eleven International Publishing, 2011), 9-35
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/76506/

  • Crawford A, ‘From the Shopping Mall to the Street Corner: Dynamics of Exclusion in the Governance of Public Space’, in International and Comparative Criminal Justice and Urban Governance, ed. by Crawford A (Cambridge University Press, 2011)

  • Crawford TAM, ‘Restorative Justice and Crime Prevention: Conceptual Links and Policy Challenges’, in Restorative Justice and Crime Prevention: Presenting a theoretical exploration, an empirical analysis and the policy perspective (Rome: Italian Ministry of Justice, 2010), 1-22
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/76507/

  • Crawford A, ‘Restorative Justice and Anti-Social Behavior Interventions as Contractual Governance: Constructing the Citizen-Consumer’, in Urban Crime Prevention, Surveillance and Restorative Justice: Effects of Social Technologies, ed. by Knepper P, Doak J and Shapland J (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2009), 167-194
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/76515/

  • Meško G, Cockcroft T, Crawford TAM, Lemaître A, ‘On Crime, Media and Fear of Crime’, in Crime, Media and Fear of Crime, ed. by Meško and others (Ljubljana: Tipografija Publishing, 2009), 5-11

  • Crawford A, ‘Anti-Social Behaviour’, in The SAGE Dictionary of Policing, ed. by Wakefield A and Fleming J (London: Sage, 2009), 4-6

  • Crawford A, ‘Situating Crime Prevention Policies in Comparative Perspective: Policy Travels, Transfer and Translation’, in Crime Prevention Policies in Comparative Perspective, ed. by Crawford A (Cullompton: Willan Publishing, 2009), 1-37

  • Crawford A, ‘Introduction: The Preventive Turn in Europe’, in Crime Prevention Policies in Comparative Perspective, ed. by Crawford A (Cullompton: Willan Publishing, 2009), xv-xxviii

  • Crawford A, ‘Plural Policing’, in Dictionary of Policing, ed. by Newburn T and Neyroud P (Cullompton: Willan Publishing, 2008), 192-194

  • Crawford A, ‘Crime and Communities’, in The New Oxford Companion to Law, ed. by Cane P and Conaghan J (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 255-256

  • Crawford A, ‘Dispersal Orders’, in (eds) Dictionary of Policing, ed. by Newburn T and Neyroud P (Cullompton: Willan, 2008), 83-84

  • Crawford A, ‘Plural Policing in the UK: Policing beyond the Police’, in Handbook of Policing (2nd Edition), ed. by Newburn T, 2nd (Cullompton: Willan Publishing, 2008), 147-181

  • Crawford A, ‘Redéfinir le Rôle de la Communauté et des Professionnels dans la Police et la Justice Pénale : Problèmes de Légitimité’, in Justice, Communauté et Société Civile: Études Comparatives sur un Terrain Disputé, ed. by Shapland J (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2008), 133-162

  • Crawford A, ‘Perceptions of Crime and Insecurity: Urban Policies in an Era of Hyperactivity and Ambiguity’, in Assessing Deviance Crime and Prevention in Europe, Report of the First General Conference of CRIMPREV, ed. by Groenemeyer A and Rousseaux X (Guyancourt: GERN, 2008), 66-80

  • Crawford A, ‘Refiguring the Community and Professional in Policing and Criminal Justice: Some Questions of Legitimacy’, in Justice, Community and Civil Society: A Contested Terrain, ed. by Shapland J (Willan Publishing, 2008), 125-156

  • Crawford A, ‘Dispersal orders’, in Dictionary of Youth Justice, ed. by Goldson B (Cullompton: Willan Publishing, 2008), 145-147

  • Crawford A, Lewis SJ, ‘Evolutions mondiales, orientations nationales et justice locale : Les effets du néo – libéralisme sur la justice des mineurs en Angleterre et au Pays de Galles’, in La Justice Pénale des Mineurs en Europe: Entre Modele Welfare et Inflexions Néo-libérales, ed. by Bailleau F and Cartyvels Y (L’Harmattan, 2007), 23-43

    It has been suggested that contemporary processes of globalisation, underpinned by a rising tide of neo-liberalism and concomitant shifts away from social democratic and welfarist politics, herald an homogenous pan-European system of youth justice dominated by a risk management and punitive model. To explore this hypothesis, we examine the influence of neo-liberalism on youth justice in England and Wales, often assumed to be the harbinger of American-inspired criminal justice reforms on the European stage. Whilst many trends, policies and practices appear to bear witness to the influence of neo-liberalism and an ‘Americanisation of criminal justice policies’, there is also evidence of countervailing tendencies. This chapter explicitly focuses upon, first, understanding some of the different dynamics at play that are often conflated within debates about the influence of global neo-liberal trends and, secondly, analysing the ambivalent and uneven reception of neo-liberal influences within contemporary youth justice in England and Wales. It also suggests that many assertions about youth justice which claim to be global often take their sense and limitations from connections between crime control, culture and politics. It concludes that the convergence of youth justice across Europe is likely to be circumscribed by political ambiguity, as well as institutional and cultural dynamics.

  • Crawford A, ‘Reassurance Policing: Feeling is Believing’, in Transformations of Policing, ed. by Henry A and Smith DJ (Ashgate, 2007), 143-168

  • Crawford TAM, ‘Restorative justice’, in Restorative justice, ed. by Spuy EVD (Cape Town: Juta & Co, 2007), 1-21

  • Crawford A, ‘Institutionalising Restorative Youth Justice in a Cold Punitive Climate’, in Institutionalising Restorative Justice, ed. by Aertsen and others (Willan Publishing, 2006), 120-150

    An analysis of the institutionalisation of restorative justice through the referral order in England and Wales.

  • Crawford A, ‘Policing and Security as “Club Goods”: The New Enclosures?’, in Democracy, Society and the Governance of Security, ed. by Wood J and Dupont B (Cambridge University Press, 2006), 111-138

  • Crawford A, ‘L’Organisation de la Sécurité en Grande-Bretagne : la police sur le marché’, in Réformer la police et la sécurité : les nouvelles tendances en Europe et aux Etats-Unis, ed. by Roché S (Paris: Odile Jacob, 2004), 211-239

  • Crawford A, ‘The Governance of Urban Safety and the Politics of Insecurity’, in Urban Safety: Problems, Governance and Strategies, ed. by van der Vijver K and Terpstra JB (IPIT Press, 2004), 65-85

  • Crawford A, ‘The Pattern of Policing in the UK: Policing Beyond the Police’, in Handbook of Policing, ed. by Newburn T (Cullompton: Willan Publishing, 2003), 136-168

  • Crawford A, ‘The Prospects for Restorative Youth Justice in England and Wales: A Tale of Two Acts’, in Criminology, Conflict Resolution and Restorative Justice, ed. by McEvoy K and Newburn T (Palgrave, 2003), 171-207

  • Crawford A, ‘In the Hands of the Public?’, in Reader on Restorative Justice, ed. by Johnstone G (Willan Publishing, 2003), 312-319

  • Crawford A, ‘The Politics of Community Safety and Crime Prevention in England and Wales: New Strategies and Developments’, in The Prevention and Security Policies in Europe, ed. by Hebberecht P and Duprez D (Brussels: VUB Press, 2002), 51-94

  • Crawford A, ‘Governance and Security’, in Crime and Insecurity: The Governance of Safety in Europe, ed. by Crawford A (Cullompton: Willan Publishing, 2002), 1-23

  • Crawford A, ‘The State, Community and Restorative Justice: Heresy, Nostalgia and Butterfly Collecting’, in Restorative Justice and the Law, ed. by Walgrave L (Willan Publishing, 2002), 101-129

  • Crawford A, ‘The Growth of Crime Prevention in France as Contrasted with the English Experience: Some Thoughts on the Politics of Insecurity’, in Crime Prevention and Community Safety: New Directions, ed. by Hughes and others (Sage, 2002), 214-239

  • Crawford A, ‘The Governance of Crime and Security in an Anxious Age’, in Crime and Insecurity: The Governance of Safety in Europe, ed. by Crawford A (Cullompton: Willan Publishing, 2002), 27-51

  • Crawford A, Clear T, ‘Community Justice: Transforming Communities Through Restorative Justice?’, in Restorative Community Justice: Repairing Harm and Transforming Communities, ed. by Bazemore G and Shiff M (Anderson Pub Co., 2001), 127-149

  • Crawford A, ‘Joined-Up but Fragmented: Contradiction, Ambiguity and Ambivalence at the Heart of Labour's’, in Crime, Disorder and Community Safety: A New Agenda?, ed. by Matthews R and Pitts J (Routledge, 2001), 54-80

  • Crawford A, ‘La justice de proximité - appels à la "communauté " et stratégies de responsabilisation dans une idéologie managériale: Réflexions à partir d'une perspective anglo-saxonne’, in La Justice de Proximité en Europe: Pratiques et Enjeux, ed. by Wyvekens A and Faget J (Saint Agne: Éditions Érès, 2001), 37-63

  • Crawford A, ‘Situational Crime Prevention, Urban Governance and Trust Relations’, in Ethical and Social Perspectives on Situational Crime Prevention, ed. by Hirsch V and others (Hart Publishing, 2000), 193-214

  • Crawford A, ‘Introduction’, in Integrating a Victim Perspective within Criminal Justice, ed. by Crawford A and Goodey J (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000), 1-11

  • Crawford A, ‘Contrasts in Victim/Offender Mediation and Appeals to Community in France and England’, in Contrasting Criminal Justice: Getting from here to there, ed. by Nelken D (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000), 205-229

  • Crawford A, ‘Community Safety and the Quest for Security’, in Perspectives on Crime Reduction, ed. by Hope T, Ashgate International Library of Criminology (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000)

  • Crawford A, ‘Salient Themes and the Limitations of Restorative Justice’, in Integrating a Victim Perspective within Criminal Justice, ed. by Crawford A and Goodey J (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000), 285-310

  • Crawford A, ‘Culture Managériale de l'Évaluation et Responsabilité: Quelques Leçons de l'Expérience Britannique des Programmes Locaux de Sécurité’, in Évaluer La Police de Proximité? Problèmes, Concepts, Méthodes, ed. by Ferret J and Ocqueteau F (Paris: La Documentation Française, 1998), 51-82

  • Crawford A, ‘Delivering Multi-Agency Partnerships in Community Safety’, in Planning Safer Communities, ed. by Marlow A and Pitts J (Lyme Regis: Russell House Publishing, 1998), 213-222

  • Crawford A, ‘Alternatives to Prosecution: Access to, or Exits from, Criminal Justice?’, in Access to Criminal Justice: Lawyers, Legal Aid and the Defence of Liberty, ed. by Young R, Wall and D (London: Blackstone Press, 1996), 313-344

Reports

  • Crawford TAM, L'Hoiry X, Partnerships in the Delivery of Policing and Safeguarding Children: Summary, (Leeds: CCJS Press, 2015), 1-4

  • Crawford A, L'Hoiry X, Partnerships in the Delivery of Policing and Safeguarding Children, (Leeds: Centre for Criminal Justice Studies, University of Leeds, 2015)
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/94380/

    Crime and policing-related problems – be they violence, abuse or child sexual exploitation - do not respect organisational boundaries but demand coordinated responses and joined-up solutions. In short, they necessitate policing partnerships. Nevertheless, the challenges associated with partnership working across organisational boundaries, cultures and established practices are significant. The benefits, however, are many and varied. Partnerships afford the potential coordination and pooling of expertise, information and resources, as well as opportunities for innovation, learning and cultural change that foster preventive and problem-solving approaches. Whilst a philosophy of partnership is strongly embedded within contemporary policy - notably in the context of child protection and safeguarding - there remains much to learn in developing and fostering multi-agency collaborations that achieve real public safety outcomes for the well-being of children and young people. Against this background Professor Adam Crawford and Dr Xavier L’Hoiry of the Centre for Criminal Justice Studies at the University of Leeds conducted exploratory research into policing partnerships with a focus on safeguarding children across Leeds in collaboration with West Yorkshire Police and the Police and Crime Commissioner for West Yorkshire. The findings highlight the importance of effective partnership working in the delivery of safeguarding children and young people as well as policing more generally. The quality of the partnership relations, in large part, determines the quality of the service provided to children and families as well as the outcomes realised. The implication is that successful inter-organisational partnerships do not arise spontaneously; they need to be forged, nurtured and supported at all levels by people committed to realising the benefits of collaborative working. They require both strategic leadership and appropriately knowledgeable and skilled people to deliver outcomes on the ground.

  • Crawford A, Situating Anti-Social Behaviour and Respect, (Leeds: Centre for Criminal Justice Studies Press, 2009), 1-8
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/43591/

  • Crawford A, Comparative Models of Crime Prevention and Delivery: Their genesis, influence and development, (Guyancourt: GERN, 2008)

  • Burden T, Crawford A, Involving Victims in Restorative Youth Justice: An Evaluation of Victim Liaison Work with Referral Orders by Leeds Youth Offending Service, (CCJS Press, 2005)

    Evaluation of victim liaison work in referral orders and youth offender panels in Leeds Youth Offending Service - for Leeds Community Safety

  • Crawford A, Blackburn SJ, Shepherd P, Filling the Void, Connecting the Pieces: An Evaluation of Neighbourhood and Street Wardens in Leeds, (CCJS Press, 2005)

    An evaluation of street and neighbourhood wardens in Leeds - Report for Leeds City Council and Leeds Community Safety Partnership

  • Crawford A, Lister SC, A Study of Visible Security Patrols in Residential Areas, (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2004)

    Author URL [www.jrf.org.uk]

  • Crawford A, Lister SC, An Evaluation of a Contracted Community Policing Experiment, (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2003)

  • Newburn T, Crawford A, Earle R, Goldie S, Hale C, Masters G, Netten A, Saunders R, Sharpe K, Uglow S, The Introduction of Referral Orders into the Youth Justice System, (Home Office, 2002)

    Author URL [www.homeoffice.gov.uk]

  • Newburn T, Crawford A, Earle R, Goldie S, Hale C, Masters G, Netten A, Saunders R, Sharpe K, Uglow S, Campbell A, The Introduction of Referral Orders into the Youth Justice System: Second Interim Report, (Home Office, 2001)

    Author URL [www.homeoffice.gov.uk]

  • Crawford A, Public Matters: Reviving Public Participation in Criminal Justice, (Institute for Public Policy Research, 2001)

  • Newburn T, Crawford A, Earle R, Goldie S, Hale C, Masters G, Netten A, Saunders R, Sharpe K, Uglow S, The Introduction of Referral Orders into the Youth Justice System: First Interim Report, (Home Office, 2001)

    Author URL [www.homeoffice.gov.uk]

  • Crawford A, Community Safety Centre Review and a Strategy for Northern Ireland, (Belfast: The Stationery Office, 2000)

  • Crawford A, Matassa M, Community Safety Structures: An International Literature Review, (Belfast: The Stationery Office, 2000)

  • Crawford A, Enterkin J, Victim Contact Work and the Probation Service: A Study of Service Delivery and Impact, (CCJS Press, 1999)

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